Visual Studio's C++ compiler has always had the best debugger integration, in my opinion. Code completion and other slick IDE features keep it ahead of the competition. Many C++11 and C++14 features are supported. There are free versions available (community editions, I think is what they are called now). I don't really use the other languages, but I assume VB and C# features are nice too. Supports use of external compilers, e.g. Intel Fortran and Intel C++, through shell extensions. There is now even an interactive Python environment available directly from the soft as a plugin.
For scientific computing, I would like to have a built-in Fortran compiler.
The Android workflow is through MS-owned Xamarin, using C#, so will naturally not mesh well with existing Android codebases that use JAVA.
No JAVA support in VS is weird, but understandable given MS's investment in C#.
I wish there was an easy way to build linux-ready projects with Makefiles (or even CMake). The workflow for many Open Source projects is to use CMake to generate Visual Studio Solution/Project files, which can then be compiled.
I have used only C++ within Visual Studio. The addition of C++11's smart pointers, threading libraries, and other features that were platform-dependent previously make cross-platform development easier now. There is a very liberal trial period - I think 30 days standard but up to 90 days if you sign up for an account - so there's no reason not to try it.
I write scientific computing applications in C++.